Delighted that our second review on AMR in the environment is now available on Global Change Biology. This is as much longer article than the piece we wrote for Science. It was nice to have the opportunity to express my opinions about the challenges of modelling in AMR: complexities associated with the wide range of actors; wide range of temporal and spatial scales; and the challenge of calibrating models against empirical data.
Citation and abstract are:
Zhu Y-G, Gillings M, Simonet P, Stekel DJ, Banwart S and Penuelas J. 2018. Human dissemination of genes and microorganisms in Earth’s Critical Zone. Global Change Biology: doi:
Earth’s Critical Zone sustains terrestrial life and consists of the thin planetary sur- face layer between unaltered rock and the atmospheric boundary. Within this zone, flows of energy and materials are mediated by physical processes and by the actions of diverse organisms. Human activities significantly influence these physical and bio- logical processes, affecting the atmosphere, shallow lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The role of organisms includes an additional class of biogeochemical cycling, this being the flow and transformation of genetic information. This is partic- ularly the case for the microorganisms that govern carbon and nitrogen cycling. These biological processes are mediated by the expression of functional genes and their translation into enzymes that catalyze geochemical reactions. Understanding human effects on microbial activity, fitness and distribution is an important compo- nent of Critical Zone science, but is highly challenging to investigate across the enormous physical scales of impact ranging from individual organisms to the planet. One arena where this might be tractable is by studying the dynamics and dissemina- tion of genes for antibiotic resistance and the organisms that carry such genes. Here we explore the transport and transformation of microbial genes and cells through Earth’s Critical Zone. We do so by examining the origins and rise of antibiotic resis- tance genes, their subsequent dissemination, and the ongoing colonization of diverse ecosystems by resistant organisms.